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Drought-stricken Australia Considers Accepting Reality

As a scientist, I'm amazed this is even being debated.

Drought-stricken Australia considers drinking recycled sewage

Residents of a drought-stricken Australian town will vote this week on whether they're prepared to drink water recycled from sewage -- the first such scheme in the country and one of only a handful in the world.

The controversial proposal has divided the town of Toowoomba in the state of Queensland, which has faced water restrictions for a decade.

Local Mayor Dianne Thorley, who is leading the "Yes" campaign, said that without drought-breaking rains the town's dams could dry up within two years.

She insisted the 73 million dollar (US 55 million dollar) plan to pump purified wastewater back into the main reservoir for drinking was safe.

"Somewhere, sometime we have got to stand up and change the way we are doing things," she told AFP as the town prepared for the July 29 referendum.

"Otherwise our great grandchildren are going to be living in something like the Sahara desert."

A vocal "No" campaign opposes the proposal, and says there are unforeseeable health risks for the town's 100,000 residents.

"The scientists say it should be safe," said local councillor Keith Beer, one of three members of the nine-strong council that opposes the plan. "That is not good enough for me, for my kids and my grandkids."

For those of you cringing out there, I have some bad news for you. Every drop of water you've ever consumed has been recycled sewerage. Yes, even that fancy French bottled stuff.

Water, like everything in life, has a cycle. That coffee you consumed this morning was dinosaur excrement at one time. I live at the bottom of the Mississippi river. I don't need to tell you what I drink every day.

We're so self-deluded. We'll dump treated sewerage effluent into a natural body of water then we'll later use that same body of water as an input for a municipal system... But if you try to hook one to the other, people freak. What do they think happens in the middle and why don't they think we can reproduce it?

A closed system is actually safer as there is less chance of accidental contamination by toxins.

I understand it's "icky" to many people but closed (actually they're semi-closed) systems make infinitely more sense.


Comments (61)

Note:That's why th... (Below threshold)
Paul:

Note:

That's why this is a blog, I get to write about what interests me, not you. Anyone wanting me to write what they are interested in can get out their check book. ;-P

Sorry i drink fromm a 2 hun... (Below threshold)
914:

Sorry i drink fromm a 2 hundred foot well, no sewage here.

We're also breathing each o... (Below threshold)
jaymaster:

We're also breathing each others farts.

Interesting entry Paul.... (Below threshold)
Sparky:

Interesting entry Paul.

Interesting to note the perceptions that people hold or ignorance that leads to them.

Wonder where septic drain f... (Below threshold)
jhow66:

Wonder where septic drain fields letch to?

Sorry i drink fromm a 2 ... (Below threshold)
Paul:

Sorry i drink fromm a 2 hundred foot well, no sewage here.

And where exactly do you think that water comes from? The water fairies?

It does not come from the s... (Below threshold)
914:

It does not come from the sewage plant..underground springs or resevoirs as its been running fo 70 years.

The crap I had to clean out... (Below threshold)
epador:

The crap I had to clean out of the filter for my well in the mountains of NE TN would make your head spin. Paul nailed a big one square on the head.

914: when was the last time you cleaned your well filter, and had a complete water analysis?

It does not come from th... (Below threshold)
Paul:

It does not come from the sewage plant..underground springs or resevoirs as its been running fo 70 years.

You're too stupid to waste my time on.

OK that was rude....<... (Below threshold)
Paul:

OK that was rude....

Let me just try to explain to you that the earth has been around more than 70 years.

If you think you're the first organism to use that water... Well I can't help you.

But trust me, you're drinking dinosaur piss.

Now theres an intelligent r... (Below threshold)
914:

Now theres an intelligent response..sheez

I would have thought they w... (Below threshold)
DJ:

I would have thought they would realize that the Earth is a closed system, with water passing through an endless cycle of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation.

I can't remember where I read/heard it (or if it was some urban myth), but the jist was that the average glass of water in NYC has been passed through the human digestive system a multiple of times.

Every drop of water you'... (Below threshold)

Every drop of water you've ever consumed has been recycled sewerage. Yes, even that fancy French bottled stuff.

Especially that fancy French bottled stuff!

Even the bottled water smelled and tasted like badly recycled sewage, which made that part of our trip very difficult - not to mention the added insult of paying two or three euros for it. Even I can't survive on coffee and wine alone.

The problem people have in being too far removed from their food source (or in this case, water) never ceases to amaze me. We may be among the strongest of nations now, but if we had to process our own food, things would get ugly.

Do you know anyone who could butcher a chicken, let alone a cow or pig? Do those same people refuse to eat chicken, steak or ham prepared by the local market butcher or meat packer?

A trip through The Jungle, anyone?

I have to wonder if this isn't a failure of our educational system - a decent grasp of biology should familiarize people with the world they live in and assuage irrational fears.

Aw, c'mon Paul...you know t... (Below threshold)

Aw, c'mon Paul...you know that in them deep dark 70 year old springs only the purest, virgin hydrogen bonds with the cleanest, unspoiled oxygen to form beautiful untouched water for 914.

A bit of a test for you, 914...you claim that 'your' water is fresh and un-previously-used since it comes from underground reservoirs. Last time I checked oil also came from underground reservoirs. Care to explain how the oil got there? Once you ponder that for a bit, ponder how your water got to its underground reservoir and how that water might have been used before you got it.

Speaking as someone with hands on experience, I'd rather drink from a NYC tap than your spring any day. You do have that thing tested at least annually for coliform bacteria, right? Preferably quarterly?

Hmmm.We'r... (Below threshold)
ed:

Hmmm.

We're also breathing each others farts.

You are if you're sharing an elevator with me.

Don't ask about the time I ate a dirty-water dog in NYC just before getting on the elevator to the top of the Empire State Building.

Panic, panic, panic.

The way I heard it was --</... (Below threshold)
Bret:

The way I heard it was --

By the time the Mississippi river reaches the Gulf of Mexico, each gallon of water will have passed through 10 states and 15 people.

Ahh, brings back memories o... (Below threshold)
mantis:

Ahh, brings back memories of my days at the water reclamation plant, or as the employees affectionately called it, the shit plant. It was interesting that at the end of it the treated water was dumped into the Dupage river, where it would eventually become drinking water again, but it wasn't advisable to even lick your lips while walking the grounds because of all the bacteria floating around that place. Ahh, memories. Horrible digestive memories.

Wow. Paul, I have to try to... (Below threshold)

Wow. Paul, I have to try to dissent. There is a huge difference between drinking piss directly from the source and drinking it after it has gone through a purification process. It's the difference between eating fish and cannibalism. We put things through a process in order to remove as much in the way of contaminants, such as viruses, as possible. That's the cause of mad cow disease.
Okay, here's the important part. People disagree on the amount of purification something should have to go through before recomsumption. Some people think that man-made purification is differnet than other methods of purification. Of course, molecularly speaking, everything we consume has gone through cycle after cycle of consumption. In order to distance ourselves from disease-causing viruses and bacteria, we subject the things we consume to a purification process. It's just so important to recognize that many people feel that the one purification process is not enough. It's not a matter of labelling someone as "stupid" or "backward". Don't fall into the trap of believing that your opinion results from you being more enlightened than "them".

I once talked to a civil en... (Below threshold)
Jake:

I once talked to a civil engineer who designed a complete water system for a small town in Arizona. They pumped water out of wells for the needs of the people. The sewage was treated to bring it to drinking water purity. The treated water was pumped underground to replenish the wells.

I asked him whether they could do away with the wells and just connect the out pipe to the in pipe. He said they could but it would be psychologically unpopular with the people.

Errrrh, ya-this brings new ... (Below threshold)
roanoke:

Errrrh, ya-this brings new meaning to the Brit colloquialism-

Taking the piss...

Dear Paul are you taking the piss-so early in the morning?

I think 914 would say -"Paul is giving the piss..."

Ya a lot of us read or watched Dune looks like the Aussies are going to have to suck it up....


Literally.

many people don't realize t... (Below threshold)
jab:

many people don't realize that many small tributaries around towns are kept flowing because of the outfall lines from the plants. in reality, treatment plants are just like having a spring of water.

In the immortal words of W.... (Below threshold)

In the immortal words of W. C. Fields, one should never drink water because "fish f**k in it."

>Wow. Paul, I have to tr... (Below threshold)
Paul:

>Wow. Paul, I have to try to dissent. There is a huge difference between drinking piss directly from the source and drinking it after it has gone through a purification process.

You tried. You failed.

Do you not understand that the water would be purified first? From the article:

Residents of a drought-stricken Australian town will vote this week on whether they're prepared to drink water recycled from sewage

RECYCLED.

Nobody is talking about "drinking piss directly from the source" except you. And this ain't the right website for that.

Isn't the same water purifi... (Below threshold)
ReadyFirst:

Isn't the same water purification process used on the space station?

I once talked to a civil... (Below threshold)
Paul:

I once talked to a civil engineer who designed a complete water system for a small town in Arizona. They pumped water out of wells for the needs of the people. The sewage was treated to bring it to drinking water purity. The treated water was pumped underground to replenish the wells.

And in the mean time it picked up all the insecticides and toxins along the way.

Libs should love this idea ... (Below threshold)
ReadyFirst:

Libs should love this idea since recycling is good for the planet and prevents global warming right?

Seems to me it is, with som... (Below threshold)

Seems to me it is, with some input to take care of losses in the system.

As it is, there's a certain oddness realzing that some of the water in your morning coffee at one time passed through Caesar's kidneys... as well as Stalin's. (And any other historical figure you care to name.)

Libs should love this id... (Below threshold)
mantis:

Libs should love this idea since recycling is good for the planet and prevents global warming right?

Yes, we liberals are for cleaning water before you drink it. You sure got us good on that one!

ReadyFirst, I really don't ... (Below threshold)

ReadyFirst, I really don't get this strange need to classify every single thing as liberal or conservative, complete with the requisite sneer. How about just calling it practical or necessary? Pasting a derisive label on something is a substitute for thought.

A couple years ago someone ... (Below threshold)
BrianOfAtlanta:

A couple years ago someone proposed doing this for Atlanta, since we will soon be using more water than the surrounding rivers can support. Some would say we're already past that point. Anyway, people freaked. My wife feels the same, even after I educated her on the subject. It boiled down to the fact that drinking purified water from a treatment plant was icky, while drinking purified water from a heavily used lake was not.

ReadyFirst-Ya. N... (Below threshold)
roanoke:

ReadyFirst-

Ya. Now how do we do the public service announcement and "sell it" to the Aussies?

If it's good enough for the Astronuats it's good enough for the Australians!

Like a twisted Tang commercial.

Except for I think we shouldn't color it lime green...or orange for that matter.

"drinking piss directly... (Below threshold)
Amish Race Horse:

"drinking piss directly from the source" except you. And this ain't the right website for that."

Mother#$%^er.

You lure us in with that suggestive title of yours - "Whiz Bang" - virtually promising us hot golden showers and some hard core watersports and all we get is a bunch of bullshit political junk.

Bait and switch man.

Bait

And

Switch

What I can say? Busted!... (Below threshold)
Paul:

What I can say? Busted!

But trust me, you'... (Below threshold)
Mac Lorry:
But trust me, you're drinking dinosaur piss.

That's the real reason we're spending hundreds of millions of dollars looking for water on Mars.

On a less serious note, nature does a good job of purifying water through evaporation, exposure to solar radiation, precipitation and finally filtering. To artificially do the same thing just run the water through the core of a nuclear reactor to flash it to steam and irradiate it in one step. Then after the steam looses some of its heat turning a turbine, run it through the cooling tower to condense it back to water and then filter it one last time before pumping it to peoples' homes.

The residents of Toowoomba just need to install a nuclear power plant to recycle their water. Yah, that's the ticket.

Water moving through the gr... (Below threshold)
jpm100:

Water moving through the ground can be one of the best filters out there.

Mother nature does a reasonable job of filtration through ground water or running water.

Dispersing viruses into a large volume of water gives plent of chance for other organic entities, other animals, bateria, etc. to consume the virus before it encounters another human.

As for toxins.

There plenty of places that flush toxic waste from factories, etc. down into the sewer system of city waterworks. If this is a closed system, without a very good filtration process, toxins will build up, not decrease.

Hey, I put manure on my gar... (Below threshold)
Candy:

Hey, I put manure on my garden, and I enjoy every bite of the fruits and veggies I grow.

My chickens eat bugs, dung - whatever they find out there - and we call them CAGE FREE EGGS! People spend $3/dozen in the stores for Egglands Best.

Long story short - who cares? Pass the Evian. As long as it's clear and tasteless, I'm happy as a pig in sh*t. :)

Well, let me try again. May... (Below threshold)

Well, let me try again. Maybe people would feel better about this if they understood the process that is used to purify the water? So perhaps instead of dismissing people's conerns as unfounded and backwards, it would be better to actually discuss how the water is purified and how it compares to other methods of purifaction. People don't like to have their fears dismissed. They prefer having their fears addressed. Actually discussing the issues might not make you feel as superior, but it may lead to the settling of people's concerns more adequately.

"You do have that thing ... (Below threshold)
914:

"You do have that thing checked at least annually for coliform bacteria at least annually, right? preferrably quarterly."

Preferrably never..no cases of cholera here! no ones even sick! Or dying, must be all them Dinosaur vitamins dissolving into the water.

Well, let me try again. ... (Below threshold)
Paul:

Well, let me try again. Maybe people would feel better about this if they understood the process that is used to purify the water?

People would probably "feel better" if they understood how airplanes flew before they boarded them. Are we going to send everyone to flight school?

Are we going to send everyone to "Wastewater Collection, Treatment and Distribution" classes.

DO YOU KNOW HOW YOUR WATER IS PURIFIED NOW?

Do you know how Wastewater is treated now?

DO you "feel bad" because you don't?

People don't like to have their fears dismissed. They prefer having their fears addressed.

Sorry, I'm not your mommie.

If the arguemnt I'm making does not make sense to you on the surface, it is up to you to ASK QUESTIONS, go google or shut the hell up.

If you had asked a question in your first post instead if "trying to dissent" I'd be far less dismissive of your arguments.

It really rather obnoxious to come here and make a silly comment then complain it was not taken seriously.

What a strange little threa... (Below threshold)
bobdog:

What a strange little thread this is, Paul...

I think it's fair to say that we all had basic science in high school. You can distill drinking quality water directly from excrement if you have to.
Let's all hold hands and holler "E-y-e-w-w-w-w!"

Just remember, though: Soylent Green is PEEPLE!

914, you have a well, and t... (Below threshold)
DavidG:

914, you have a well, and the pump is at 70 ft.

I know when i lived in New Hampshire we had a well, we also had a septic tank. Now one is supposed to keep them far apart but that leech field was really spread out in our backyard. Well was in the front, but um do you know the direction of water flow from your leech field to where you well is? More than likely the water gathers and flows down to yours or your neighbors well. While your leech field may not connect to your well, someone's most likely does. Hopefully the ground provides sufficient filtering but one might want to make sure.

The point has been made, we continually reuse the water, the real question is the amount of filtering that occurs before we reuse it again.

I thought Aussie's were tou... (Below threshold)
Matt:

I thought Aussie's were tougher than that.

I would bet that half the people of that funny sounding town in Australia would drink water purified with a portable ceramic filter while camping in the outback, even though mass purified water scares them.

The freshest, coldest, best tasting water I ever had was from a moutain top in S. Korea. I was sick for weeks.

I have also drank filtered water from cattle ponds that had been carefully filtered and was fine. Yes, the filtering doesn't help the taste that much, but TANG can cover most other flavors.

I think John J has good poi... (Below threshold)
Ken:

I think John J has good points, and even if some are psychological, good PR practice would address them also. Another significant consideration in the US (especially California where I live), but maybe not in some places in Australia: most water use is for agriculture, not home consumption. The easy way to resolve recycling sewage is to use the recycled water for agricultural uses, not homes.

The only problem is, the amount of recycled water is small compared to the total used on agriculture.

Hmmm.The solution ... (Below threshold)
ed:

Hmmm.

The solution to all of the dissent?

Use the stuff to make BEER!

Yay beer!

Not only will the boiling and fermentation process end up killing all the bacteria but the yeast could possibly consume any remaining particulate matter. Then as the yeast precipitate down to the bottom of the primary fermenter it would continue clearing the wort of any particulate matter.

Spurging and secondary fermentation would remove any remaining matter with filtering removing any traces of yeast.

So screw drinking water, make it into beer and end the debate!

JanetDon't know wh... (Below threshold)
tblubird:

Janet

Don't know why your bashing Ready First - he is absolutely correct. Big deal on NASA website during STS-107 (we're now at STS-121) about that experiment.

I just didn't see any political implications of his comment. Sorry.

And 914, I grew up on a farm with a well. If you're too stupid to test yours, don't preach to anyone else.

Candy:Hey, I pu... (Below threshold)
Heralder:

Candy:

Hey, I put manure on my garden, and I enjoy every bite

It was at this point that I started to laugh, but then I finished reading your sentence:

of the fruits and veggies I grow.

heheh.

If anyone has tried drinking water directly from a clear, sparkling mountain stream, you'll find you have something close to dysentery for the next few days. Not fun. Boil it first.

Ah Matt,I see I'm ... (Below threshold)
Heralder:

Ah Matt,

I see I'm not alone in my "sparkling stream" incident.

"Preferrably never..no c... (Below threshold)

"Preferrably never..no cases of cholera here! no ones even sick! Or dying, must be all them Dinosaur vitamins dissolving into the water."

I thought as much...you've never had your water tested. No one's talking about cholera, I said 'coliform bacteria'. It's, like, everywhere, dude. It's also an indicator that you use to find out if there's deer poop in your sparkly clean water. Or badger poop, rhinocerous poop, dog poop, buffalo poop, people poop, horse poop, pretty much any warm blooded animal's poop, whatever variety they come in where you live...or, if you are indeed on a spring, any animals that live within a, who knows, several hundred mile radius? Depends on the aquifer. In your water. Poop.

Call a lab, get a test, they're about $30, although that might be cheaper now, I think there's a cheaper test that's been approved. If so it might be $15. Once a year is a pretty standard recommendation for private sources, quarterly if your source isn't that well protected. If it's negative you grin and have another glass. If it's positive you go back to the lab and get another sample bottle and have it tested for fecal coliforms (aka poop) or e. coli (another indicator of poop).

For $15-$30 it's a pretty good indicator of how good your water is. If you don't have coliforms your source is probably pretty well protected (take the sample a day or two after a good heavy rain if you really want to get a good test) and there probably isn't any other nasty stuff in the water that's not there naturally. If it's positive, well, then I tell people that there's really no difference between their source and pond water, because both are getting unfiltered water and where there's unfiltered water there could be poop.

"no ones even sick"

Ever had stomach cramps for no real reason? Chalk it up to a mild case of food poisoning figuring the steak you had was a little too rare? Just a 24-hour bug? Must've been something you ate? Got a touch of what's going around? Could be poop in your water. Bet you didn't even think of that.

Ya. Now how do we do the... (Below threshold)
ReadyFirst:

Ya. Now how do we do the public service announcement and "sell it" to the Aussies?

If it's good enough for the Astronuats it's good enough for the Australians!

Like a twisted Tang commercial.

Except for I think we shouldn't color it lime green...or orange for that matter.

Posted by: roanoke at July 25, 2006 01:34 PM

Too funny, had me laughing hard w/that one!

San Diego already <a href="... (Below threshold)
mesablue:

San Diego already recycles water.

They only do it for non-potable uses, but the original intent was for all water needs. Too many people freaked out so they are easing into it slowly.

Heck, my water comes from the Detroit River. Pretty good stuff, too.

Stroh's used to get their water from the Detroit River, so if you've ever had a Stroh's, you've had as we used to affectionately call the product -- Detroit River Water.

Also, if you want to read an interesting story about the kinds of things we used to drink, look up the reason they changed the direction of flow of the Chicago River. Cool stuff.

DavidG, My septic drains do... (Below threshold)
914:

DavidG, My septic drains downhill on the other side of the house (frontyard) really a field of trees and shrubs, My well is 180 ft deep as of 1981.. the nearest neighbor is a half mile away and I live in sandy soil. I have never had any problems thank God it will continue.. Thanks Jeff

tblubird, I think Janet was... (Below threshold)
ReadyFirst:

tblubird, I think Janet was referring to my second post about recycling. God forbid you poke a little fun at the Church of environmentalism.

FalzeNo i've never... (Below threshold)
914:

Falze

No i've never had stomach cramps for no reason! I had food poisoning from a chicken sandwich from Hardees before..thats about it. have not ever even had a toothache or headaches. must be blessed I guess.

Yes, I was referring to Rea... (Below threshold)

Yes, I was referring to ReadyFirst's second thread and no, I wasn't bashing him. I am just weary of the tendency we have too often to paste convenient, simplistic labels on issues and then refuse to address them because they are what the "others" propose. I tend to take rocks from both sides of the political spectrum because I don't properly follow the dogma of either side. I find as soon as soon as the sneers start, thought stops. I like to listen to people who disagree with me because either they convince me, or they make me think more deeply about my opinions and understand them more thoroughly. Or they cause me to pick up a plank without adopting their entire platform. I happen to think that using limited resources responsibly is intelligent and not a conservative or a liberal issue. I am not prepared to worship the Earth Goddess or accept every word an environmentalist says just because they said it.

So I wasn't bashing ReadyFirst, but challenging the rather facile use of labels. Challenging one another's thinking is what discussion is supposed to be all about.

Not all Aussies are funny a... (Below threshold)
penster:

Not all Aussies are funny about drinking recycled water, but the people of "Poowoomba" (as they are now being called) are Queenslanders, after all. Our northerners are rather like what I've heard about your southerners...

I grew up in Adelaide, a southern city which is at the end of a river flowing through 3 of our 6 states. The water doesn't taste great and they only got the yellow tinge out of it about 15 years ago. Moral of the story though: never did us any harm.

Great idea about the nuclear reactor - we're in the middle of a debate about that, too.

Also, in case you're wondering, it's pronounced "t-WOOM-bah" (woom like cook). It's an aboriginal word.

Thanks for this blog. I laughed and laughed (with relief that some Americans have a decent sense of humour, among other things!).


Cheers!

Hmmmm.Dav... (Below threshold)
ed:

Hmmmm.

DavidG, My septic drains downhill on the other side of the house (frontyard) really a field of trees and shrubs, My well is 180 ft deep as of 1981.. the nearest neighbor is a half mile away and I live in sandy soil. I have never had any problems thank God it will continue.. Thanks Jeff

So.... How high is the hill your house is sitting on? 180 feet? Just joking. But when your septic runs down hill it'll end up in the water table. How far below ground level, at the base of the hill, is your well?

And btw. My father ran a municipal sewage treatment plant in New Hampshire for 25 years or so. He checked the quality of our water every 6 months and we had a somewhat similar setup. The septic tank was sited waaaayy in the back and the well was in front of the house.

He still checked the water quality though. *shrug* it's your GI tract. But a $15-$30 water test is a better option than getting parasites or any number of other nasty things.

" Shrug its Your GI trac... (Below threshold)
914:

" Shrug its Your GI tract. but a 15-30$ is a better option then getting parasites or any number of other nasty things.".

Like liberals in the White House again pray tell?

You have so much common sense You should write a book. Thanks Ed.. Jeff

Toowoomba does not currentl... (Below threshold)
John C:

Toowoomba does not currently draw water from any upstream river with discharge effluent.

That's why it's so tempting for the recycled water companies to want to use Toowoomba as a test case.

FYI - Toowoomba is over 100kms from the coast.

That creates real problems for disposal of the RO waste stream. You can't pump it out to sea like Singapore.

Mayor Thorley is relying on a coal company to take the waste stream for coal washing but they don't want it.

Without their involvement, the project's costs double as hundreds of acres of evaporation pond will need to be built - something that is not in the Council's costings. Council also refuses to have the costs of the Water Futures project independently assessed.

The recycled water project does not solve Toowoomba's water issues. We will still need another water source. Toowoomba produces 8,000ML of sewage per annum and they think they can get 11,000ML of recycled water out of this. It's crazy. Singapore works on 80% recovery.

The other difference with the Singapore project is it recycled around 1%. Mayor Thorley's scheme involves 25-29% recycled sewage water for drinking.

No other planned indirect potable use project in the world uses such high levels. Even Council's advisers, CH2M Hill, think this rate is "high by international standards and will require further studies".

Interesting post John... (Below threshold)
Paul:

Interesting post John

As far as the evaporation fields there has been good work done firing water thru high pressure jets to atomize it and speed evapoation, this of course equires energy so it is not used to save money but land. That sounds like the oppsite of your problem.

you typed:

Toowoomba produces 8,000ML of sewage per annum and they think they can get 11,000ML of recycled water out of this.

Did you flip those humbers? If not it really is crazy.

Even Council's advisers, CH2M Hill, think this rate is "high by international standards and will require further studies".

They might say that publically but that's for the media. Any decent "water guy" in the world could design this system. Maximizing the yield is an issue as is energy usage.

What nobody "in the general public" knows or understands is that treating water is dead simple with unlimited energy. The trick is to not use a KW/h of electricity for every gallon of water processed.

If we ever hit the energy jackpot (fussion, Hydrogen etc) clean water everywhere is child's play.

p.s. Sorry if this is all b... (Below threshold)
penster:

p.s. Sorry if this is all bit old news for you, but it's one of the biggest issues in Australia, and will remain so for a LONG time.

Nope, the numbers are right... (Below threshold)
John C:

Nope, the numbers are right. Trying to get 11,000 ML of water from 8,000 ML of sewage. Crazy.

The comments by CH2M Hill weren't public comments. They were made in the Council Federal funding application, which the Council resisted releasing to the ratepayers until a request was made under local freedom of information laws.




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